Oral Cancer, Concerns and what we look for.

Oral cancer is divided into two categories – those occurring in the oral cavity (your lips, the inside of your lips and cheeks, teeth, gums, the front two-thirds of your tongue and the floor and roof of your mouth) and those occurring in the oropharynx (middle region of the throat, including the tonsils and base of the tongue).

Early detection may result in better treatment outcomes and may help keep you or someone you love from becoming one of the 10,030 people whose lives may be claimed this year by the disease. The 5-year survival rate of those diagnosed is approximately 60 percent.

Where Can Oral Cancer Appear?

The oral cavity includes your lips, cheek lining, gums, front part of your tongue, floor of the mouth beneath the tongue and the hard palate that makes up the roof of your mouth. The throat (pharynx) starts at the soft part of the roof of your mouth and continues back into your throat. It includes the back section of your tongue, as well as the base where the tongue attaches to the floor of your mouth.

What Are the Symptoms of Oral Cancer?

It’s important to be aware of the following signs and symptoms and to see your dentist if they do not disappear after two weeks.

  • A sore or irritation that doesn’t go away
  • Red or white patches
  • Pain, tenderness or numbness in mouth or lips
  • A lump, thickening, rough spot, crust or small eroded area
  • Difficulty chewing, swallowing, speaking or moving your tongue or jaw
  • A change in the way your teeth fit together when you close your mouth

Some people complain of a sore throat, feeling like something is caught in their throat, numbness, hoarseness or a change in voice. If you have any of these symptoms, let your dentist know, especially if you’ve had them for two weeks or more.

What Are the Risk Factors for Oral Cancer?

Research has identified a number of factors that increase the risk of developing oral cancers. Men are twice more likely to get oral cancer than women. Smokers and excessive alcohol drinkers older than 50 are the most at-risk.

The human papilloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, has also been associated with throat cancers at the back of the mouth. HPV-positive head and neck cancers are related to the rise in throat cancers in non-smoking adults. HPV-positive head and neck cancers typically develop in the throat at the base of the tongue and in the folds of the tonsils making them difficult to detect. Although people with HPV-positive cancers have a lower risk of dying or having recurrence than those with HPV-negative cancers, early diagnosis is associated with the best outcomes. Regular dental check-ups that include an examination of the entire head and neck can be vital in detecting cancer early.

How Can My Dentist Help Detect Oral Cancer Early?

During your regular exam, your dentist will ask you about changes in your medical history and whether you’ve been having any new or unusual symptoms.

Then, your dentist will check your oral cavity. This includes your lips, cheek lining, gums, the front part of your tongue, the floor of your mouth and the roof of your mouth. Your dentist will also examine your throat (pharynx) at the soft part at the roof of your mouth, including your tonsils, the back section of your tongue and where your tongue attaches to the bottom of your mouth. The dentist will then feel your jaw and neck for any lumps or abnormalities.

What Happens If My Dentist Finds Something Suspicious?

Stay calm. Your dentist won’t be able to tell right away if what he or she is looking at is cancerous, so he or she may refer you for testing. Your dentist might also reexamine you a week or two later to see if questionable spots are healing on their own before recommending additional follow-up. Together, you and your dentist can create the best strategy for diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

What Can I Do to Prevent Oral Cancer?

The most important thing is to be aware of your risk factors. Men are twice more likely to get oral cancer as they get older. If you smoke, drink excessive amounts of alcohol or have a poor diet, changing these habits can decrease the chances of developing oral cancer.

Certain strains of HPV can also put you at risk. The CDC recommends that 11- to 12-year-old boys and girls get two doses of HPV vaccine to prevent cervical and other less common genital cancers. It is possible that the HPV vaccine might also prevent head and neck cancers – since the vaccine prevents an initial infection with HPV types that can cause head and neck cancers – but the studies currently underway do not yet have sufficient data to say whether the HPV vaccine will prevent these cancers.

If you have had oral cancer before, you may be more likely to develop it again so keep up those regular visits.

 

Article curated from: Mouth Healthy – American Dental Association

Seven tips for wisdom teeth pain relief

People often decide to have their wisdom teeth removed, as they can cause painful, aching gums. How can wisdom teeth pain be relieved at home before their removal?

Wisdom teeth are the last teeth to break through the gums. They grow at the very back of a person’s mouth. There are normally four wisdom teeth in total, with one in each of the furthest corners of the top and bottom gums.

This article looks at home remedies and medical treatments to relieve the pain caused by wisdom teeth.

Contents of this article:

  1. What causes wisdom teeth pain?
  2. Treating wisdom teeth pain at home
  3. How to avoid wisdom teeth pain
  4. Outlook

What causes wisdom teeth pain?


Wisdom teeth usually emerge after all the adult teeth. They may emerge at an awkward angle, or there may not be enough room for them.

Wisdom teeth normally push their way through the gums when a person is between the ages of 17 and 21. The sensation of a tooth pushing through the gums can be painful.

In addition, there is often no room for the wisdom teeth in a person’s mouth, as the adult teeth have already developed. This lack of space may cause wisdom teeth to come through at an angle, or getting stuck and not come through fully.

When this happens, the wisdom teeth are impacted. Having impacted wisdom teeth leaves the gums vulnerable, as the surface breaks and the teeth are not fully through. Food and bacteria can get trapped in the gums and lead to several issues, including:

Treating wisdom teeth pain at home

Impacted wisdom teeth may cause pain, aches, and tenderness. Ultimately, removing the wisdom teeth can help resolve these problems.

In the meantime, there are several over-the-counter medical treatments and natural home remedies available.

1. Numbing gel

A numbing dental gel may help reduce feeling in the gums and dull the pain. These gels are available over the counter and contain the active ingredient benzocaine.

Most dental gels can be applied directly to the affected gums throughout the day. However, it is important for a person to follow the instructions included in the product. Also, it is possible to be allergic to benzocaine.

2. Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter pain relief medication that helps reduce inflammation.

Taking the recommended dose on the packet may help relieve discomfort. It can also reduce inflammation of the gums associated with wisdom teeth development.

Ibuprofen or other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may be effective pain management until a person can see a dentist for treatment.

3. Ice pack

Applying an ice pack to the jaw can help reduce inflammation, which in turn may relieve pain. Using ice can also have a numbing effect.

A person can try holding an ice pack with a tea towel around it against their jaw for up to 15 minutes.

The ice pack can be applied off and on with 15 minute breaks until the pain has subsided.

4. Salt water rinse


Rinsing the mouth with salt water several times a day may help to reduce symptoms such as pain.

Salt water has natural disinfectant properties. A 2010 study showed that rinsing the mouth with salt water can help reduce bacteria.

Sometimes, a build-up of bacteria in the broken gums around wisdom teeth can be the cause of pain. As such, rinsing with salt water may help treat the infection and reduce the discomfort.

To make the salt water rinse, a person can dissolve a few tablespoons of salt into a glass of freshly boiled water. When the water has cooled slightly, it can be swirled around the mouth for several minutes, then spat out.

A person may want to rinse their mouth with salt water two or three times a day, or until the pain starts to reduce.

5. Cloves

Research into the effectiveness of cloves to relieve wisdom tooth pain is positive. A 2006 studyshowed that there is promise for cloves as a topical pain reliever due to their numbing effect.

To try this home remedy, a person can use a whole clove or clove oil. If using a whole clove they should:

  • place the clove over the wisdom tooth that is causing pain
  • hold it in place by closing their jaw, but without chewing
  • leave it there until the pain reduces and then spit it out

To try this remedy using clove oil, a person can:

  • put a few drops of clove oil on a ball of cotton wool
  • put the cotton wool on the wisdom tooth that is causing pain
  • hold the cotton wool in place until the pain reduces and then remove it

6. Onion

2007 study found that onions have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. These advantages of onions mean they can help reduce swelling and fight bacterial infections.

To use onions as a home remedy, a person should:

  • cut off a piece of onion
  • chew the onion on the side of the mouth that has the pain
  • keep chewing for a few minutes until pain reduces and then spit out the onion

This process allows the juice from the onion to go into the gum so that it can reduce inflammation and bacteria.

7. Tea bags


Tea bags should only be placed in the mouth when completely cooled.

2016 study found that tannins contained in tea bags have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. This means tea bags may help reduce swelling and fight bacterial infections.

To use tea bags as a home remedy, a person should make a cup of tea and put the cup in the fridge with the tea bag left in it. Once the tea is cold, the tea bag can be taken out and placed inside the mouth where the pain is located.

How to avoid wisdom teeth pain

When a person’s wisdom teeth are coming through, there are practical things they can do to make it less likely that their gums become infected. These actions include:

  • Practicing good oral hygiene: Brushing teeth twice a day, flossing, and using mouthwash can help reduce the bacteria in the mouth that cause infections.
  • Drinking plenty of water: This helps to flush food and bacteria away from the teeth and gums.
  • Avoid sugary foods: Sweet foods can get stuck inside the broken gums, encouraging bacteria to grow.
Last reviewed

Jaw pain: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Jaw and facial pain is a common problem affecting millions of people worldwide. It causes many treatment challenges in the healthcare community when it comes to diagnosis and treatment.

As there are so many potential causes to jaw pain, correct diagnosis is vital. Doctors need to identify the exact cause in order to provide the best course of pain-relieving treatments.

Contents of this article:

  1. Causes
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatments

Causes

TMJ - Close-up

TMJ – Detail

Teeth grinding and arthritis may be causes of jaw pain but the most commonly reported is temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ).

There are several possible causes of jaw pain and these may be related to physical injury, nerve problems, or blood vessel problems.

The most commonly reported cause of jaw pain is temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ). The condition affects up to 12 percent of people. Nearly 5 percent seek medical treatment due to the severity of the problem. Women of childbearing age are most commonly affected by TMJ.

TMJ collectively describes disorders of the temporomandibular joints, and the muscles responsible for jaw movement. These muscles are known as the masticatory muscles.

Other known causes of jaw or facial pain include conditions, such as:

  • Teeth grinding, clenching, or opening the mouth too wide: Most often, teeth grinding and clenching is experienced during sleep and can lead to tooth damage and jaw pain. It can also occur during periods of increased emotional stress.
  • Osteomyelitis: This is a condition where an infection in the body affects the bones and associated tissues.
  • Arthritis: Arthritic conditions, such as osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, which lead to the surface of bones wearing away.
  • Synovitis or capsulitis: These are conditions in which the lining of the joint or a connecting ligament becomes inflamed.
  • Dental conditions: These can include gum disease, cavities, tooth gaps, damaged teeth, or abscesses.
  • Sinus problems: These affect the nasal cavities.
  • Tension type headaches: Tension headaches are typically caused by stress and may lead to facial pain.
  • Neuropathic pain: This type of long-term pain occurs when nerves become damaged and send pain signals to the brain. This pain can be continuous or occur from time to time.
  • Vascular pain: This type of pain occurs when the supply of blood to part of the body is disrupted. It is caused by conditions that include giant cell arteritis and carotid artery dissection.
  • Neurovascular pain: This type of pain is caused by conditions that affect both the nerves and the blood vessels, such as migraine and cluster headaches.

Pain can also be caused by lifestyle-related factors, including emotional stress, sleep disturbances, a lack of certain nutrients, or tiredness.

Other conditions that may cause jaw and facial pain include rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, fibromyalgia, and some mental health conditions.

Symptoms

woman holds jaw
Jaw pain symptoms may include facial pain, earache, jaw locking, toothache, and facial swelling.

The presenting symptoms of jaw pain vary depending on the cause. They may include:

  • facial pain that worsens when the jaw is used
  • joint and muscle tenderness
  • limited range of motion
  • jaw alignment issues
  • clicking or popping sounds with opening or closing of the jaw
  • ringing in the ears
  • earaches
  • headaches with or without ear pain and pressure behind the eyes
  • dizziness
  • jaw locking
  • dull aching to sharp stabbing pain
  • becoming overly sensitive to pain
  • vertigo
  • toothache
  • tension headaches
  • nerve-type pain, such as burning
  • fever
  • facial swelling

Other symptoms may be present and these will depend on the root cause of the jaw pain.

It is important for people to seek prompt medical attention in order to work out the cause of their pain so that a treatment plan can be determined. Doing so swiftly can help prevent long-term complications from occurring. Dentists, oral surgeons, and doctors are able to evaluate jaw pain.

Complications

Complications vary based on the cause and other factors associated with your pain, including the treatments that are used. They may include:

  • dental complications
  • surgical complications
  • infection
  • chronic pain
  • emotional distress
  • changes in eating habits

Diagnosis

In order for a doctor to diagnose and treat the cause of jaw pain, they will need to perform certain tests.

The following tests may help them to find out more about the cause of jaw pain, including:

  • physical exam, including assessment of the nerves, neck bones, jaw, mouth, and muscles
  • complete medical and pain history
  • certain laboratory tests, such as an erythrocyte sedimentation rate blood test, used in the diagnosis of conditions involving pain
  • certain radiology imaging procedures, such as X-ray or MRI
  • psychological and psychiatric screening

Other tests may be needed if a clinician suspects that the jaw pain is caused by a particular disease. They will discuss what they recommend for diagnosing the cause of any jaw pain as necessary.

Treatments

drugs being poured into a hand
If the cause of jaw pain is an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Treatment of jaw pain depends on what the cause is. Treatment methods are varied and may include the following:

  • antibiotics if the jaw pain is caused by an infection
  • surgery to remove damaged bone, treat an affected nerve, or to diagnose the problem
  • use of a mouth protector, such as a mouth guard
  • physical therapy
  • muscle relaxants or tranquilizers to aid in relaxing the affected muscles
  • antidepressants, which can sometimes help treat painful conditions
  • topical capsaicin, which is helpful in treating some nerve-related conditions
  • steroid injections to decrease inflammation or swelling
  • antiviral therapy to treat viral infections, such as herpes zoster
  • pain medication
  • oxygen therapy and some prescription medications to treat cluster headaches
  • certain blood pressure medications when migraines are being treated
  • root canal treatment, a procedure to treat infections within teeth
  • tooth extraction if the cause is from an abnormal or infected tooth
  • vapo-coolant spray to relieve painful areas of muscle, called trigger points
  • injections with local anesthetics
  • stretching to stretch and sooth the affected muscles
  • relaxation therapy
  • soft diet to avoid excessive jaw movement and crunching
  • moist heat application or cold therapy
  • massage or acupuncture
  • use of correct posture to avoid neck and back strain

Other treatments are available to treat jaw pain, and their use is determined by the cause of the pain. Doctors can discuss the best method for treating pain with each person, based on their unique situation.

Prevention

Knowing the trigger of any jaw pain is important to prevent the pain from returning.

Some basic preventive measures may be useful, and these include:

  • avoiding crunchy foods, gum, chewing fingernails, or other hard objects
  • eating soft or liquid foods, such as soup or pasta
  • taking smaller bites of food
  • avoiding caffeine
  • trying massage, meditation, and aerobic exercise
  • taking calcium and magnesium supplements, if appropriate
  • avoiding yawning
  • sleeping on the back or side, avoiding stomach sleeping
  • avoiding grinding teeth
  • avoiding carrying bags on the shoulders for too long, switching shoulders frequently
  • using correct posture
  • seeking regular dental care

People should always speak to their doctor to determine the safety of any preventive measure to ensure it is appropriate for their unique situation.

When to see the doctor

It may be necessary for people to seek medical care for jaw pain if they are experiencing symptoms, such as:

  • failure of home remedies to treat jaw pain
  • jaw pain that interferes with a daily routine
  • irregular jaw motion
  • jaw joints making sounds when moving
  • neck or upper back pain
  • eye pain
  • headaches
  • ringing in the ear
  • dental problems, such as broken or worn teeth

People should speak with a dentist or doctor about jaw pain in order for diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.

Last reviewed:

Dental implant with slow-release drug reservoir reduces infection risk!

At Doctor Krape Cosmetic & Specialized Dentistry we work hard to stay on top of all the latest technology and treatment procedures in order to offer you every option available for you and your family’s dental health.  After all “Your Smile means everything to us!”
When it comes to choosing the best dentist in the north palm beach county area, we would love the opportunity to meet you and show you around our warm and friendly office where you will feel like family.
  • We welcome patients looking for second opinions and best of all, they are free!
  • We are also open Saturdays and are available 24/7 for Emergency situations.
In the latest news, scientists have developed a dental implant containing a reservoir for the slow release of drugs. Laboratory tests in which the reservoir slowly released a strong antimicrobial agent showed that the new implant can prevent and eliminate bacterial biofilms – a major cause of infection associated with dental implants.

Lead author Dr. Kaat De Cremer, from the Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics at KU Leuven, explains that the reservoir in the implant can be filled by removing the cover screw. She adds that:

“The implant is made of a porous composite material, so that the drugs gradually diffuse from the reservoir to the outside of the implant, which is in direct contact with the bone cells. As a result, the bacteria can no longer form a biofilm.”

In general, bacteria have two life-forms. In one, the planktonic state, they exist as single, independent cells, and in the other, they aggregate in a slime-enclosed mass called a biofilm.

Published:

Dental-sealant program could prevent most cavities, lower treatment costs in vulnerable children

There is much talk about in school programs that could have such a profound effect on cavity prevention and even long term dental health of children. Dr. Krape Cosmetic & Specialized Dentistry has always encouraged parents to consider dental sealants as a must for their children at such critical development ages. Please don’t put this off. Schedule an appointment for your children today! Call: 561-257-2580.

Dental Sealants prevent cavities

Close-up of little boy opening his mouth wide during inspection of oral cavity

Research shows dental sealants to shield the back teeth could prevent up to 80 percent of cavities in school-aged children. They are quick, easy, and painless to apply – yet according to a new CDC Vital Signs report, about 60 percent of school children ages 6-11 years don’t get dental sealants.

Dental sealants are a thin coating that is painted on teeth to protect them from cavities. One way to provide sealants to more children is by increasing their access to school-based sealant programs (SBSPs).

SBSPs are especially important for children from low-income families because such children are less likely to receive dental care. These programs target schools with a high percentage of children eligible for free or reduced-cost meal programs. As a result, SBSPs provide sealants to children who are at higher risk for cavities and less likely to receive preventive care.

“Many children with untreated cavities will have difficulty eating, speaking, and learning,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “Dental sealants can be an effective and inexpensive way to prevent cavities, yet only 1 in 3 low-income children currently receive them. School-based sealant programs are an effective way to get sealants to children.”

School-based dental sealant programs are high impact and low cost

Sealants provided in school settings are effective. Recent studies found that dental sealants prevent 80 percent of cavities for two years after application and continue to protect against 50 percent of cavities for up to 4 years after placement. They can be retained in the mouth for as long as nine years.

Key findings from the report include:

  • About 43 percent of 6- to 11-year-old children had a dental sealant. Low-income children were 20 percent less likely to have sealants than higher-income children.
  • School-age children without sealants have almost three times more cavities than children with sealants.
  • Applying sealants in school-based programs to the nearly 7 million low-income children who don’t have them could save up to $300 million in dental treatment costs.

CDC supporting states to start or increase school-based dental sealant programs

State officials play an important role in increasing children’s access to school-based dental sealant programs in their states. Officials can:

  • Target school-based sealant programs to the areas of greatest need in their state.
  • Track the number of schools and children participating in SBSPs.
  • Implement policies that deliver SBSPs in the most cost-effective manner.
  • Help connect schools with health departments, Medicaid and CHIP offices, community health centers, and dental professionals in the community.

CDC currently provides funding to 21 state public health departments to coordinate and implement school-based and school-linked sealant programs that target low-income children and those who live in rural settings.

The Vital Signs report can be viewed here.

For more information on SBSPs, dental sealants, and CDC’s work, visit: www.cdc.gov/oralhealth.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Gingivitis, eventual Periodontitis will cost you your overall health and $…

Dr. Krape Cosmetic & Specialized Dentistry of North Palm Beach Florida, understands the seriousness of oral neglect. Over many years he has observed the long term ill-effects of poor oral hygiene and what it can do to the entire body when it comes to much more serious and life threatening concerns.

Gingivitis is one of the most common signs that eventually leads to a much more serious concern of Periodontitis. Note what the following article and study published by: Applied and Environmental Microbiology on August 12th reveals below.

The damage of advanced periodontal disease.

The damage of advanced periodontal disease.

Investigators chart microbial ecology of gingivitis, periodontitis

Gingivitis, a common and mild form of gum disease can progress to periodontitis, a more serious infection that damages the soft tissue of the gums and sometimes even destroys the bone supporting the teeth. An international team of researchers and clinicians has charted the microbial ecology of the mouth at all stages of this progression, in nearly 1,000 women in Malawi. This work is laying a foundation of knowledge that could lead to better oral health. The research is published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

The investigators used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene to take the census of the oral microbiomes. Among much else, they found that a small number of species were associated with periodontitis, but not gingivitis, including members of the genera, Prevotella, Treponema, and Selemonas. “Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis, even when only considering supragingival plaque,” said first author Liam Shaw, a PhD student at University College London, United Kingdom.

Periodontitis is diagnosed by measuring the depth of the pockets in the gums next to the teeth. “But diagnosing periodontitis visually is impossible and it doesn’t usually give any symptoms until it has developed so far that teeth become mobile, which is very late for any treatment,” said coauthor Ulla Harjunmaa, a dentist with a master’s degree in international Health, who is a PhD student at the Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Finland.

Diagnosis requires specially trained dental professionals and expensive equipment, which are seldom available in developing countries, said Harjunmaa. But among other things, in the future, this research may lead to an inexpensive and rapid point-of-care test, based on distinguishing the two conditions’ microbiomes. “The research made it possible to tell which differences in bacteria were linked specifically to the deepening of dental pockets – which causes loss of teeth – rather than just to bleeding gums,” explained Shaw.

“We’re not the first to do this sort of research into periodontal disease, but our study is the largest to be done in such a setting,” said Shaw. “There is a great need to find new solutions to prevent these problems everywhere, but especially in this kind of setting.” He added that oral infections are very common in Malawi, since there is little awareness about oral health and prevention, and little treatment available.

Some of the techniques used in the research may have wide applications, said Shaw. “Where diseases can have multiple severities and clinical features that are also found in non-disease (like bleeding gums in periodontitis), this kind of modeling will be increasingly important in microbiome research.”

Periodontal disease is a major public health problem associated with oral bacteria. In developed nations, approximately half of adults are thought to have moderate periodontal disease, with another 7-15 percent having advanced disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Additionally, periodontal disease is thought to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions. Treating gum disease could reduce healthcare costs, as well as hospitalizations, according to a study published in the August, 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

“The best way to prevent periodontal disesases is by proper tooth brushing twice a day combined with flossing once a day,” said Harjunmaa. For smokers, quitting is also critically important to prevention, she said.

 

Article: Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi, Liam Shaw, Ulla Harjunmaa, Ronan Doyle, Simeon Mulewa, Davie Charlie, Ken Maleta, Robin Callard, A. Sarah Walker, Francois Balloux, Per Ashorn and Nigel Klein, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, doi: 10.1128/AEM.01756-16, published online 12 August 2016.

Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi

Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). The bacterial composition of supragingival plaque across a range of periodontal severities has not previously been explored with high-throughput sequencing. Furthermore, quantitative modelling of bacterial abundances in supragingival plaque as a function of both gingivitis and periodontitis has not previously been attempted.

We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5-V7 region) to characterise the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial co-occurrence networks to assess community structure.

The main differences in supragingival plaque composition were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members ofPrevotella, Treponema, and Selemonas, supporting a more complex disease model than linear progression following on from gingivitis. Co-occurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, supporting their role in co-aggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression.

Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis, even when only considering supragingival plaque.

IMPORTANCE. Periodontal disease is a major public health problem associated with oral bacteria. While earlier studies focused on a small number of ‘periodontal pathogens’, it is now accepted that the whole bacterial community may be important. However, previous high-throughput marker gene sequencing studies of supragingival plaque have largely focused on high-income populations with good oral hygiene without including a range of periodontal disease severities. Our study includes a large number of low-income participants with poor oral hygiene and a wide range of severities. We are able to quantitatively model bacterial abundances as a function of both gingivitis and periodontitis, which has not previously been attempted. A signal associated with periodontitis remains after controlling for gingivitis severity, supporting the concept that even when only considering supragingival plaque, periodontitis is not simply an advanced stage of gingivitis. This suggests the future possibility of diagnosing periodontitis based on bacterial occurrences in supragingival plaque.

Don’t let piercings put a hole in your oral health

Lip Piercing Dental Dangers

Lip Piercing can be dangerous to the health of your mouth and teeth

A leading health charity is calling on people to understand the risks associated with oral piercings after uncovering their remarkable popularity.

Research1 carried out by the Oral Health Foundation found tongue piercings are particularly popular, with 43% of people with oral piercings opting for them. A third (33%) of people had a lip piercing, with cheek (3%) and gum (7%) piercings much less common.

The poll also found that 13% of people with oral piercings had more than one, highlighting the current popularity of the trend.

Type of piercing Vote
Tongue 43%
Lip 33%
Cheek 3%
Gum 7%
Multiple 13%


The charity wants everyone who has, or is considering getting, an oral piercing to understand the risks associated with them and take the necessary steps to avoid the health problems which they are related to.

CEO of the Oral Health Foundation, Dr Nigel Carter OBE, discussed the hazards which oral piercings can have on a person’s oral health.

Dr Carter said: “Our research has found that a sizeable amount of people are choosing to have oral piercings, they have become a very fashionable form of self-expression but not everybody realises the potential long and short term damages that they can have on our mouths.

“Oral piercings are a major cause of chipped or cracked teeth due to trauma when they come into contact with the teeth; many people even have a habit of biting or playing with their piercing which can be extremely dangerous and can often lead to extensive dental work.

“The mouth also contains a huge amount of bacteria and is an ideal place for infection to arise, this is especially the case with new piercings as it is an open wound and needs constant care and attention to prevent infection. An infection can quickly lead to other more serious conditions such as blood poisoning (septicaemia).

“The act of getting a piercing is itself very dangerous as if done incorrectly can cause issues such as permanent numbness of the tongue, blood loss, excessive swelling which affects breathing and swallowing and and in severe cases and increased risk of HIV and Hepatitis B.”

The Oral Health Foundation is encouraging people to fully research the health risks associated with oral piercings and if they still wish to have it done ensure that they do so with a trustworthy provider and confirm that it is done in a clean and safe environment.

Dr Carter added: “On a day to day basis oral piercings can interfere with such basic functions such as speech, chewing and swallowing, there is certainly a lot of things to think about before going out to get an oral piercing.

“But, as our research shows, many people already have oral piercings. Our advice to these people is to keep it as clean as possible, using an antiseptic mouthwash regularly can help to do this.

“Try to avoid playing or fiddling with it and having it come into contact with teeth, especially when speaking or eating as this leads to teeth wear which can lead to extensive dental intervention.

“If you are taking part in sports remove the jewellery to minimise the risk of any damage through trauma.

“Most importantly though ensure you visit your dentist regularly, as often as they recommend, to look after the overall health of your mouth and prevent any long term problems from developing.”

Could a probiotic pill prevent dental cavities?

In 2011-2012, dental cavities, or caries, affected 91% of adults aged 20-64 years in the US, exacerbated by consumption of sugary foods and drink, lack of oral hygiene and not paying regular visits to the dentist.

For the mouth to stay healthy, pH levels must be neutral. Too much acid can cause dental cavities or other disorders.

Acid in the mouth causes bacteria on the teeth to create more acid, and acid dissolves the teeth.

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Incorporating A12 into probiotic treatment could reduce the risk of cavities.

 

Researchers at the University of Florida (UF) College of Dentistry, led by Robert Burne, PhD, and Marcelle Nascimento, PhD, wanted to know what causes high pH.

Their search revealed a new strain of bacteria that could keep bad bacteria under control, and pave the way to using probiotics to prevent cavities.

Keeping a balanced pH in the mouth

Previous research by the same authors has found that two main compounds are broken down into ammonia, and this helps to neutralize acid in the mouth.

The two compounds are urea, which everyone secretes in the mouth, and arginine, an amino acid. The researchers already knew that people who had few or no cavities were better at breaking down arginine than those with cavities.

Fast facts about cavities

  • In 2011-2012, 17.5% of 5-19-year-olds had dental caries
  • Among those aged 20-44 years, the figure was 27.4%
  • 83% of those aged 2-17 years visited the dentist in the previous year.

Learn more about oral health care

They knew that bacteria were responsible for breaking down these compounds, but did not know which bacteria do this best, or how this activity prevents cavities.

Part of the answer is a previously unidentified strain of Streptococcus, currently called A12.

Samples of dental plaque, the bacteria that grow on the surface of teeth and can contribute to the formation of cavities, were collected for the study.

Over 2,000 bacteria were then screened to find the right one. The team characterized 54 bacteria that metabolized arginine. Of these, A12 had all the properties needed to prevent cavities probiotically.

The researchers then sequenced the entire genome of A12.

They hope to use the findings to develop a screening tool for people with a higher risk of developing cavities, alongside other factors, such as diet and oral hygiene habits.

Nascimento says that if they can confirm that people with a higher level of A12 develop fewer cavities, A12 could be used to measure for cavity risk.

‘Good’ bacteria to fight the bad

Burne explains that, just as we might use a probiotic approach to the gut to promote health, a similar strategy could be effective for the mouth.

He adds:

“You would implant this probiotic in a healthy child or adult who might be at risk for developing cavities. However many times you have to do that, once in a lifetime or once a week, the idea is that you could prevent a decline in oral health by populating the patient with natural beneficial organisms.”

The fact that A12 helps to neutralize acid by metabolizing arginine was not the only discovery. The authors also found that A12 often kills Streptococcus mutans, an especially harmful kind ofl bacteria.

Even when A12 did not kill S. mutans, it hindered it from causing disease by disrupting the processes.

Burne points out that growing A12 and S. mutans together reduced the ability of the bacterium to develop properly or to make biofilms, also known as dental plaque.

S. mutans metabolizes sugar into lactic acid, and this contributes to the acidic conditions that form cavities.

Meanwhile, the researchers hope to carry out a larger study to find more instances of A12, and to test how prevalent bacteria with similar properties are in the human mouth.

While the development of an effective oral probiotic is still a long way off, A12 looks a promising candidate.

Medical News Today reported last month that people who sleep with their mouth open may have a higher risk of tooth decay.
Written by Yvette Brazier
Published: Friday 11 March 2016

Dr. Krape Cosmetic & Gentle Family Dentistry offers informative articles to its patients and community in the Northern Palm Beaches form Jupiter, Palm Beach Gardens and North Palm Beach, Florida in order to bring awareness to new medical science that continues to unveil the direct correlation between a well balanced diet, exercise and your oral health.

Continued research may produce a Probiotic pill which can aid in better oral health however, this is not necessarily the remedy, but an aid. Much has been said about reducing processed (fast) foods, eating more natural whole foods, reducing or even eliminating acid producing sugars in order to obtain better health. Dr. Krape also knows that regular brushing, daily flossing and routine teeth cleaning and exams are a must.

A well trained, experienced dentist can identify overall physical health concerns by the condition of your mouth and teeth and offer sound advice that could save you much grief in the long run.

Schedule your teeth cleaning and exam today! Call: 561-257-2580.

Best Dentist–North Palm Beach, Florida? Ask your neighbors…

Taking a journey down US. Hwy. One from North Palm Beach to Lake Park, Florida has seen tremendous changes especially in the last 50 years. Who better to talk about those changes then Dr. Jerry Krape himself. After serving in the US Army as a captain, started a family with his true love Olivia Krape in El Paso, TX. Dr. Krape, his wife and their newly first born daughter, Michelle relocated to North Palm Beach, Florida in 1969.

Dr. Krape and daughter Michelle, 1967

Dr. Krape and daughter Michelle, 1967

Over the last 47 years, much has changed in North Palm Beach however, the one thing that never changed was Dr. Krapes’ consistent reputation for friendly, gentle and quality family dentistry.

Best Dentist in North Palm BeachA huge supporter of the community of North Palm Beach, Dr. Jerry and his wife raised three more daughters, and are proud of their 11 grandchildren.

Dr. Jerry is also well-known for his love of the ocean and fishing. Owning just about every size boat imaginable, fishing not just locally, but abroad as well.

When it comes to looking after his patients, Dr. Krape maintained years of trusted and loyal service to so many. As the dentist of his patients children, Dr. Jerry had the pleasure to care for extended generations of families.

So when asked by so many in North Palm Beach, Florida who they would consider the best dentist? It’s no surprise you will hear Dr. Jerry Krape, Cosmetic and Gentle Family Dentistry mentioned over and over again.

So, we encourage you to ask your neighbors…

Dr. Krape continues to run  his practice, with a full staff of specialists including a Periodontist, Endodontist, Prosthodontist as well as General Dentistry.

The practice utilizes the latest state of the art technology and equipment and performs such procedures and treatments like Dental Implants, Dentures and Bridges, Root Canals and Crowns, Extractions, Porcelain Veneers, and even entire smile-makeovers.

If you and your family are looking for a dentist, please give Dr. Krape Cosmetic Dentistry a call at: 561-257-2580.

“Your smile means everything to us!”